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Competing Visions small A history of California Robert W.Che
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    A History of California
    Second Edition
    Robert W. Cherny
    San Francisco State University
    Gretchen Lemke-Santangelo
    Saint Mary’s College of California
    Richard Griswold del Castillo
    San Diego State University
    Competing Visions A history of California
    The text (including graphs, maps, and charts) of Competing Visions: a  History of California, by Robert W. Cherny, Gretchen Lemke-Santangelo, and Richard Griswold del Castillo is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA. All photographs and artistic renderings in the text are licensed under CC BY, CC BY-NC, CC BY-SA, or CC BY-NC-SA, or are in the public domain and free of any known restrictions/permissions. The cover image, “Coit Tower Mural” by artist Ralph Stackpole, is licensed under CC BY 2.0. by Ed Bierman. The authors wish to thank Margaret Copeland of Terragrafix.com for preparing the digital version of the text, including the design of its charts, maps, and tables, and the Saint Mary’s College Filippi Fund and Office of Faculty Development for their financial support of this project.
    Preface xiii
    1 California’s Origins: The Land and the People,
    Before Spanish Settlement 1
    Diversity: Origins of California and Its Native Peoples 3
    Cycles of Life: The Food Quest, Spirituality, and Rituals 10
    The Food Quest 10
    Spirituality 14
    Rituals 16
    A Closer Look: Six Regional Peoples 19
    The Gabrielino/Tongva 19
    The Chumash 21
    The Costanoans 22
    The Miwoks and Yokuts 24
    The Shastans 25
    Significance: The Importance of California Natives and Other North American
    Native Peoples in Non-Indian History 26
    Summary 28
    2 The Spanish Colonization of California,
    1769–1821 31
    The Spanish Conquest and Empire 34
    Spain’s Exploration of the Californias 35
    Early Maritime Exploration and Encounters 38
    The First California Colony 39
    Demographic and Ethnic Growth of California 41
    The Missions 42
    Neophyte Resistance 46
    Evaluation of the California Missions 48
    Establishing Presidios and Pueblos 50
    Gender Relations in Spanish California 53
    Spanish Californian Culture 56
    Political Developments in Spanish California 57
    The Wars of Independence in New Spain 59
    Foreign Interest in Spanish California 60
    Summary 62
    3 Mexican Californios: Conflict and Culture,
    1821–1846 65
    A New Political Order 68
    Early Self-Government: Solá and Argüello 68
    The Governorship of José María Echeandía 69
    Rebellion Against Centralism: Governor Victoria 70
    Secularization of the Missions: José Figueroa 72
    Rebellion, Revolution, and Home Rule 74
    Micheltorena and the Catesby Jones Affair 76
    The Rise of the Ranchos 78
    Environmental Changes 81
    Social Relations in Mexican California 82
    The Growth of Town Governments 82
    Californianas: Mexican Californian Women 83
    Mexican–Indian Relations 85
    Immigrants and Foreigners 87
    California and the World 93
    Summary 94
    4 War, Conquest, and Gold: The American Era
    Begins, 1845–1855 96
    The War Between the United States and Mexico 99
    Manifest Destiny 100
    Frémont and the Bear Flaggers 101
    Occupation and Resistance 103
    California Indians and the War 106
    Peace 107
    The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo 107
    The Divided Mind of the Californios 109
    The Gold Rush 110
    Gold! The Discovery of 1848 110
    The Argonauts 113
    Camp Life 117
    Nativism and Racism 120
    The Legendary Life of Joaquín Murrieta 121
    vi Contents
    California Transformed 122
    Conquest of the Californios 122
    Conquest of the Indians 123
    Economic Transformation 124
    The Golden State 124
    Summary 126
    5 California and the Crisis of the Union,
    1850–1870 129
    Crisis and Conflict in the 1850s 132
    California Statehood and the Compromise of 1850 132
    San Francisco’s Crisis of Political Legitimacy: Vigilantism in the 1850s 133
    Violence and Displacement: California Indians in the 1850s 136
    The Politics of Land and Culture 138
    Californians and the Crisis of the Union 141
    Fighting Slavery in California 141
    Sectional Issues and California Politics 143
    California and Civil War 146
    Reconstruction and New Understandings of Citizenship 147
    Economic Growth in a Time of National Crisis 148
    The Transformation of Mining 148
    Economic Diversification 149
    Transportation 151
    Tying Together the Union With Iron 152
    New Social and Cultural Patterns 155
    Gender Roles and New Social Institutions 155
    The Growth of Religious Toleration 157
    Writing the Gold Rush 160
    Summary 161
    6 California in the Gilded Age, 1870–1900 164
    The Economic Transformation of California and the West 167
    Railroad Expansion 168
    Mining and Finance 171
    Agriculture 172
    Water 174
    Rise of Organized Labor 176
    San Francisco: Metropolis of the West 177
    Contents vii
    New Social Patterns 180
    Education 180
    Changing Gender Roles 181
    California Indians 183
    Changing Patterns of Ethnicity 184
    Politics 188
    Political Discontent in the 1870s 189
    The Second Constitutional Convention, 1878 191
    Politics in the 1880s 192
    Political Realignment in the 1890s 193
    California and the World: War With Spain and Acquisition of the Philippines 195
    Cultural Expression 196
    Summary 197
    7 California in the Progressive Era, 1895–1920 200
    The Origins of California Progressivism 203
    The Many Shapes of Progressivism 204
    Municipal Reform: Los Angeles 204
    Municipal Reform: San Francisco 205
    Organized Labor in the Progressive Era 207
    Efforts to Reform State Government Before 1910 209
    Social and Economic Change in the Progressive Era 210
    Immigration and Ethnic Relations 210
    Economic Changes 214
    Earthquake and Fire in 1906 216
    Water Wars 218
    California in the World Economy 221
    California Progressivism, 1910–1920 222
    Hiram Johnson and the Victory of the Progressives, 1910–1911 222
    California Progressives and the Presidential Election of 1912 224
    Radicals in a Progressive Era 225
    A Second Flood of Reform, 1913 227
    The Progressive Tide Recedes, 1914–1920 229
    Californians in a World of Revolutions and War 229
    Californians and the Mexican Revolution 230
    War in Europe and Conflict at Home 230
    Californians Go to War 231
    Peace and the Backwash of War 232
    The Meaning of Progressivism for Californians 233
    Summary 234
    viii Contents
    8 California Between the Wars, 1919–1941 237
    The Rise of Los Angeles: Twentieth-Century Metropolis 241
    The Economic Basis for Growth 241
    The Automobile and the Growth of Southern California 243
    Prosperity Decade: The 1920s 245
    Politics in a Time of Prosperity 245
    New Economic Patterns 247
    New Social Patterns 249
    Cultural Expression 252
    Depression Decade: The 1930s 254
    Impact of the Great Depression 254
    Labor Conflict 257
    Federal Politics: The Impact of the New Deal 261
    State Politics: The Rise of the Democrats 263
    Cultural Expression During the Depression Decade 266
    California on the Eve of War 268
    Summary 269
    9 World War II and the Great Transformation 273
    Economic Expansion 276
    Overview of the War’s Economic Impact 276
    The Aircraft Industry 277
    Shipbuilding 278
    Agriculture 279
    Other Industry 280
    Japanese Relocation and Internment 282
    The Unfolding Tragedy 282
    Relocation and Internment 285
    Population Growth and Diversity 289
    Black Migration 290
    New Challenges and Opportunities 294
    Shifting Gender Relations 299
    Daily Life and Culture 302
    Wartime Challenges 302
    Entertainment 302
    Political Transformation 304
    Change from the Grassroots 304
    Change at the Top 305
    Summary 307
    Contents ix
    10 Postwar California: Prosperity and Discontent
    in the Golden State: 1946–1963 310
    Unbridled Growth 312
    Industrial Growth and Organized Labor 313
    Education 316
    Population and Suburban Growth 317
    Transportation, Energy, Water Resources, and Environmental Pollution 319
    Postwar Politics 324
    California’s Red Scare 324
    Warren and Knight 327
    Edmund G. Brown 328
    Liberalism at the Municipal Level 331
    Social and Cultural Dissent 333
    White Flight and Ghettoization 333
    Poverty in the Barrios and Fields 335
    Asian Pacific Immigration and Activism 339
    Opportunities and Challenges for California Indians 340
    Student Activism 341
    Cultural Developments 343
    Summary 345
    11 Divided We Stand: Activism and Politics,
    1964–1970 348
    Seeds of Change 352
    From Civil Rights to Civil Unrest 352
    Black Power 356
    The Grassroots War on Poverty 358
    Justice in the Fields 360
    The Anti-War Movement 363
    The Counterculture 365
    Coming Together at People’s Park 367
    The Movement Expands 368
    The Chicano Movement 368
    Taking the Rock 372
    Change and Activism Along the Pacific Rim 374
    Emerging Feminist and Gay Rights Movements 376
    Politics in the Age of Dissent 378
    The Decline of Liberalism 378
    Reagan as Governor 380
    Summary 382
    x Contents
    12 Era of Limits and New Opportunities:
    1970–1990 385
    The Legacy of the ’60s 389
    Feminism 390
    Disability Rights 392
    Gay Pride 393
    Multiethnic Political Gains 395
    Ethnicity and Economics 398
    Cultural Advances 402
    Economic Changes and Environmental Constraints 404
    The Economy 404
    Environmental Activism and Constraints 407
    Politics in the Era of Limits 414
    Edmund G. Brown Jr. 414
    Deukmejian 418
    Summary 420
    13 California in Our Times 423
    A New Kind of California 426
    The Los Angeles Riots, the O.J. Simpson Trial, and After 426
    The Rise of Latino California 428
    The Ever-Changing Ethnic Mosaic 430
    The Economic Roller Coaster 435
    Cycles of Bust and Boom 436
    Technology 438
    Trade: Going Global 439
    Growing Wealth, Increasing Poverty, Shrinking Middle Class 441
    A Faltering Infrastructure 442
    Education 443
    Health Care and Housing 445
    The Environment 446
    Transportation 448
    Energy 449
    Politics in the New California 449
    State Politics, 1990–1998: The Governorship of Pete Wilson 450
    State Politics, 1998–2003: The Governorship of Gray Davis 452
    State Politics, 2003–2008: The Governorship of Arnold Schwarzenegger 454
    State Politics Since 2010: The Return of Jerry Brown 456
    Religious and Cultural Diversity 458
    Spirituality in Contemporary California 458
    Contents xi
    Cuisine 459
    Art, Literature, Film, and Music 459
    Competing Visions: The History and Future of California 463
    Summary 464
    Governors of California: 1767 to Present 467
    Glossary of Spanish Terms 469
    Index I-1
    Image Links I-39



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